Fresh water marshes are characterized by soft stemmed plants like grasses and sedges. The nearly 3000-ha Kankakee Sands Preserve has restored more than 640 ha of wetlands since 1998 (Ted Anchor, TNC, personal communication). Bodies of water found within the freshwater biomes are shaped in various ways and in different sizes. A lake or pond is generally disconnected from other water sources, so not all types of plants and animals can survive in this particular freshwater biome. At one point, these wetlands actually sprawled across half of Florida but development by people have cut it down to only about ten percent now. There was a further winter kill in the wet meadow, and then both vegetation types began to recover from the perturbation. Now it is a flourishing marsh filled with native plants providing habitat for more than 250 species of migratory and resident birds. Historically, the southern portion of the San Joaquin Valley supported some of the largest freshwater marshes in the west. Subsequently, most of the plants that survived the initial oiling succumbed to normally tolerated winter stress. The dominant plant is the sedge Carex aquatilis. Freshwater marshes, in particular, are highly susceptible to invasion by aggressive species such as Phalaris, Typha, Phragmites, and Lythrum, so it is important to select sites that are resistant to invasion (see Chapter 3, Ecological Theory and Restoration). As a result, the initial community dominants were also prominent in the postdisturbance secondary succession. The temperatures range from 65 °F to 75 °F in the summer and 35 °F to 45 °F in the winter. Table 6.7. Florida Everglades is the largest freshwater marsh in the world. +81-93-512-8510 (operator) Marsh Japan, Inc. Osaka. Freshwater marshes are usually low-lying, open areas located near creeks, streams, rivers and lakes, where water flows into the marsh. Compared to records from the 1970s, the restored marshes contained fewer species of macrophytes and birds but comparable species of fish (Richardson and Hussain, 2006). Animals that are found in or around the river include fishes, crabs, snakes, beavers, crocodiles, snails, insects and otters. Remote sensing revealed that, in the period 2009 to 2012, the area of vegetated marsh declined to levels reported prior to the Second Gulf War in 2003 with the reduction attributed to construction of additional dams and water diversions upstream (Al-Yamani et al., 2007; Al-Handal and Hu, 2014). Key deer, alligators, raccoons, Lower Keys mud turtle, and other species would not be here were it not for these freshwater resources. (b) A marsh restored 10 years earlier. Marshes are especially common at the mouths of rivers. Average Temps & Rainfall The average weather in the Florida freshwater marsh is sunny and in the 80’s. Freshwater can also be found a few miles off the ground. Restored marsh soils contained less organic matter, total N, total P, and moisture and greater bulk density, pH, and available P than reference marshes (Table 11.4). When integrated over the entire network of tidal freshwater wetlands within an estuary, nutrient removal may be substantial because the small contributions of individual marshes can have a large cumulative impact on water quality. Table 8.3. Lake Baikal, in central Asia, is the biggest lake on Earth. They are very common at the mouths of rivers and form in areas with mineral soil that drains very slowly. Burton, D.G. Most plants and animals can not survive without freshwater biomes. Mailing Address. 2:32. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools) while lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. Because the water is free of the harsh salt found in other areas, these animals and plants thrive. The location of this NPC is unknown. Freshwater marshes are often found in open areas near rivers and lakes. Freshwater ecosystems naturally share resources between habitats. Removal of woody vegetation, prescribed fire, and mowing also were needed to reduce abundance of woody saplings and invasive herbaceous species that colonized in the interim between cessation of tillage and initiation of restoration activities. Species Richness and Quality (Coefficient of Conservatism, Hydrophytic Indicator Status) of 10-Year-Old Restored Marshes and Natural Marshes. However, herbicides will be necessary once invasive species become established. Mass balance calculations indicate high rates of N removal in upper estuaries (Howarth et al., 1996), and many characteristics of tidal freshwater wetlands appear to favor denitrification, such as high active surface area, shallow depth to anaerobic zone, and high organic matter availability. The temperature is cooler at the source than at the mouth. Values are a human concept and vary with human perceptions from different cultures/societies around the world. (2005a) calculated that DNRA was about 40% of nitrification. In the Corn Belt of the Midwest US, large acreages have been restored to freshwater marshes by plugging drainage ditches and breaking tile drains (see Chapter 5, Freshwater Marshes). As a result, plant cover 1 year after the spill was only about 5% of the prespray value. Mangrove forests are found in the intertidal zone of tropical coastlines and estuaries, commonly in the tropical coastal … Tulare Lake was the largest (1800km2) lake west of the Mississippi River in the mid 1800s (Schoenherr 1992). This research has paralleled the hydrocarbon exploration and resource development activities in the north, although these activities have since slowed down due to unfavorable crude-oil pricing. Compared to vegetation, there were greater differences in soil properties between the 10-year-old restored marshes and natural marshes. However, after 10 years, some differences in species composition of the restored marshes and natural marshes were noted. Reproduced with permission of Oxford University Press. Freshwater wetlands are found throughout the lower Florida Keys as a result of our unique limestone geology. In tidal freshwater marshes, denitrification rates are correlated with benthic sediment O2 demand in a New York marsh, but not in a tidal freshwater wetland in Maryland, USA (Merrill, 1999). (And Ways To Protect Peonies), Do Deer Eat Roses? Table 11.4. The freshwater biome is of significant importance in the world, yet so many fail to realize its importance. Freshwater marshes are a type of wetland that is teeming with both animal and plant life. Thung Sam Roi Yot Freshwater Marsh located in the northern part of Khao Sam Roi Yot which is 60 kilometers from Hua Hin. By March 2004, nearly 20% of the original 15,000-km2 marsh area was reflooded and common reed, P. australis, quickly reestablished (Richardson et al., 2005). Some are around for years. While ponds are small bodies of water surrounded by land, lakes are large bodies of freshwater surrounded by land. Plants that live in wetlands are called Hydrophytes. Birders often come from miles around to see the great biodiversity that exists here. Marshes created on excavated soils should be plowed using a rip or chisel plow to reduce compaction. Founded Conserve Energy Future with the sole motto of providing helpful information related to our rapidly depleting environment. Transplants, while more expensive, are more likely to resist invasion by aggressive species better than seeding. The most frequent genera of oildegrading bacteria were Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Pseudomonas, Spirillum, and Xanthomonas, while the most frequent microfungi were Beauveria bassiana, Mortierella, Penicillium, Phoma, and Verticillium. They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. As a result, more there is more runoff into the river. Restored marshes contained more low quality (weedy) species than reference marshes (Hopple and Craft, 2013). In agricultural landscapes, the absence of propagules in the seedbank and via dispersal limits natural colonization. Aboveground biomass and plant species diversity also were low in 2006 relative to pre-drainage conditions. High denitrification rates have been confirmed in multiple tidal freshwater wetland studies (Groszkowski, 1995; Merrill, 1999; Merrill and Cornwell, 2000; Elsey-Quirk et al., 2013; Ensign et al., 2008, 2013; Von Korff et al., 2014). Bowden (1986) determined that DNRA rates were 5% of NO3− supply (i.e., nitrification) rates. In the winter, the high is normally about 77 degrees. This NPC is the objective of Threat From the Sea and Continued Threat. In the 1970s, before efforts to drain them, the area consisted of shallow water lakes, freshwater and brackish marshes, and shrublands (Al-Hilli et al., 2009). A few important facts about the freshwater biome that you should know: Let’s take a look at some of the different types of freshwater biome sources: Wetlands is an area that is made up of standing water. Address. Fresh water marshes are probably the most diverse type of wetland. Watch Queue Queue Marsh plants were distributed in predictable zonation patterns. Even with the slow rate of (functional) development, after 10 years, the restored wetlands performed at a lower level than natural wetlands. There are no studies departing from the traditional lethal aquatic toxicity assay and none that focus on the longer-term effects of short-term exposures. Study Reveals Exposure To Toxic Air is Similar To A Pack of Cigarette Smoking Per Day, Tropical Rainforest Biome: Location, Temperature, Precipitation, Plants and Animals, Can You Recycle Frying Pans? When seeding or planting, select seeds and young transplants appropriate for the geographic region, inundation zone, and, in arid and semiarid environments, salinity. Tidal freshwater marshes contain much greater plant species diversity than saline tidal marshes. Lake Baikal, in central Asia, is the biggest lake on Earth. The influences of these limiting factors on the rate of hydrocarbon degradation can be effectively managed by occasionally tilling oiled soils to increase oxygen concentration and by fertilizing to create more favorable ratios of C:N and C:P. JAMES L. CARTER, VINCENT H. RESH, in Rivers of North America, 2005. Salt marsh landscapes ripen into the subtle colors of autumn Feast your eyes on these 5 quintessential marshland landscapes. These nonvascular plants suffered almost complete mortality and had little ability to recolonize the oiled plots in the first few postoiling years. Plants are normally found along the edge of the river. Long-term recovery of wetland vegetation has been slow and hindered by high levels of salinity as compared to pre-drainage measurements made in the 1970s (Hamdan et al., 2010). (1991) and Neubauer et al. It can be thought of as land that is saturated with water. The environmental controls on denitrification have been extensively reviewed (Seitzinger, 1988; Cornwell et al., 1999; Wallenstein et al., 2006) and will not be covered in great detail here. Freshwater Marshes: Ecology and Wildlife Management (Wildlife Habitats, Band 1) | Weller, Milton W. | ISBN: 9780816624065 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Bass, Catfish, and Tilapia are among the types of fish found in the areas. There is also a need to leave the traditional lethal assays and to use some of the newer tests for genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and others. They are important because they serve as fresh source of water for the animals living nearby. For example, in the Patuxent and Choptank rivers, USA, slightly more than 30% of the total N input at the fall line is permanently removed by low-salinity tidal marshes via burial and denitrification (Merrill, 1999; Malone et al., 2003). When shopping for toilets, bathtubs, showers, showerheads, and sinks for your home, make sure that you search for most, Use less water. National Science Foundation Recommended for you. On average, the temperature will decline as the water gets deeper. Seeding clearly enhanced species diversity. (1973) found that the respiratory activity (i.e., efflux of C02 from soil) of experimentally oiled soil near Barrow was about two times larger than that of reference soil, while bacteria were about five times as abundant. Rivers change their course as they travel and carve a path through the land. As the rives flow, the width increases and so does the species diversity. From Richardson and Hussain (2006). The foliage of this plant was killed by oiling, but its perennating rhizomes in the sediment were little affected. 24th Fl., HERBIS ENT Office Tower, … (And 5 Ways to Dispose of), Is Junk Mail Recyclable? They typically are located in the upper reaches of estuaries of large rivers. In some areas of the freshwater biome alligators are also found, but not in all biome areas. 1-3-15, Sakai-machi, Kokurakita-ku Kitakyushu-shi. Plot 8721, President Avenue. Cyanobacteria is largely found in freshwater biomes. Once you learn the source of your water, you can learn more about that particular type. Similarly, the N models of Bowden et al. When the Hussein regime collapsed in 2003, the remaining Marsh Arabs and water ministers broke open dikes and reflooded large areas of marsh (Lawler, 2005; Richardson and Hussain, 2006). Successful restoration of inland marshes depends in large part on site history and landscape context. Table 12.2. Significantly different from the reference marshes. Uzarski, in Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, 2009. Climate change causes less water to be available, limiting animals and plants, The risk of going dry is also very serious. Chapter 3, Ecological Theory and Restoration, Zedler and Kercher, 2004; Miklovic and Galatowitsch, 2005. By September 2005, nearly 39% of the original marsh land was inundated mostly as a result of 2 years of record snowpack melt in the headwaters of Turkey and Iran (Richardson and Hussain, 2006) and a number of species of birds, fish, and macroinvertebrates recolonized the marshes. A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Plant diversity varies with location and depth of the water. This water allows the insects to reproduce. All you have to do is go there.The world’s major wetlands are located in southern Africa, North America, central South America, and Asia and the biggest freshwater marsh in the United States would be the Florida Everglades. Other plant species of this ecosystem were less resilient to the effects of the oil spill. However, adding water alone did not necessarily lead to restoration of the wetlands. Avoid sites with disturbance that exposes bare soil to potential colonizers (Table 5.5). They are found in all types of environments and continents. A salt marsh is a marshy area found near estuaries and sounds. Freshwater Ecosystem | Iken Edu - Duration: 10 ... Marshes and Sea Level Rise - Science Nation - Duration: 2:32. Based on work in other systems, the availability of labile C relative to NO3− (i.e., electron donor: electron acceptor ratio) is important in determining the fate of NO3−, with high organic C availability favoring DNRA (Fazzolari et al., 1998; Christensen et al., 2000; Giblin et al., 2013; Algar and Vallino, 2014) and denitrification increasing in importance at higher NO3− concentrations (Nijburg et al., 1997; Tobias et al., 2001a,b). Compared to cultivated soils in the area, restored marshes contained less soil pH and available P (Marton et al., 2014a), suggesting that land-use legacies, liming and P fertilization, were declining following restoration. Since the early 1970s, several research projects have examined the environmental effects of oil and gas development in the Arctic of North America. Other species including Schoenoplectus littoralis, Typha domingensis, and Ceratophyllum demersum also reestablished (Table 12.2) (Richardson and Hussein, 2006). This includes swamps, bogs, marshes, flood plain and prairie pothole. On restored sites, seeding introduced eight new species as compared to 25 species that colonized unassisted (Hopple and Craft, 2013). Water flows into marshes from rain or from a water source like creeks, streams, or rivers. The speed with which the microbial community can degrade hydrocarbon residues mostly depends on the availabilities of oxygen and of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, both of which are presently in small concentrations in petroleum and its refined products and residues. These freshwater wetlands are located all around the world. Tidal freshwater marshes are much less common than saline tidal marshes, in large part because of their location in the upper part of the estuary, usually far removed from the ocean and at the head of tides where major ports and cities are located. Although most of us do not think anything about these shapes, they are actually vital to our living. These wetlands are non-forested and have non-peat soils (unlike bogs and fens). Although the freshwater biomes found throughout the world are essential to the survival of man, there are threats that put it at risk. Reflooding also posed other problems, including release of toxins from soils contaminated with chemicals, mines, and military ordnances (Richardson and Hussain, 2006). Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. (And How To Keep Them Away), There is about 1/5 of the Earth covered by freshwater biome, The water used to wash your dishes and to take a shower with is also thanks to these freshwater biomes, Temperatures in freshwater biomes range from 39° to 71° F, Russian lakes contain freshwater biome. Most of the research on the potential effects of oil spills on terrestrial vegetation involved the perturbation of permanent plots, which were then monitored over time (e.g., McCown et al., 1973b; Freedman and Hutchinson, 1976; Hutchinson and Freedman, 1978). Restoring wetlands on agricultural land is essential if we hope to offset the large nutrient loads that originate from surrounding landscape. Incorporate microtopographic features into the soil surface as appropriate. Oftentimes the plants found in freshwater biomes are unidentifiable to most of us. Mailing Address: … Marsh Japan, Inc. Nishinihon Contact Center (Fukuoka) Nihon Seimei Kokura-Sakaimachi Bldg 3Fl. (And Ways to Reuse Old Bottles), 13 Amazing Plants That Do Not Need Drainage Holes, Do Deer Eat Petunias? It is a one-kilometer-long wooden board over marsh area where you can walk and enjoy the natural beauty of the place. The crude was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Scattered throughout the earth, several are remnants from the Pleistocene glaciation. Initially, the crude oil acted as an herbicide and killed all foliage and active woody stem buds that were directly contacted. Figure 12.1. Rosaly Ale-Rocha, Ruth Leila Ferreira-Keppler, in Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (Fourth Edition), 2018. However, the long-term success of this restoration project is unknown because human needs for water in this arid landscape will take precedence. These bodies of water contain freshwater and are free of salt. Bill Freedman, in Environmental Ecology (Second Edition), 1995. Streams and rivers are found all across the Earth and travel thousands of miles before they join a ocean. Across the estuarine gradient, DNRA is generally more important (relative to denitrification) in estuarine and marine systems, whereas denitrification is more important in freshwater systems (Tobias et al., 2001b). The threats to the freshwater biome are just some of the ways that water can be depleted rapidly. Plants that are most commonly found in wetland are milkweed, water lilies, grasses, tamarack,sedges, duckweed, cattail, cypress trees, and mangroves. There are a variety of snake species which are often heavily populated in lakes, rivers, and marshes, as well as the surrounding areas. Freshwater marshes are restored in the US through federal programs, especially the Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs (Fennessy and Craft, 2011; From: Creating and Restoring Wetlands, 2016, Christopher Craft, in Creating and Restoring Wetlands, 2016. They are in the palm of your hands. (2009). Contact the Park. Succulent herbaceous vegetation including Pontedaria (pickerelweed), Sagittaria (duck potato), and others are common in the frequently inundated lower elevations. Open-water plants included watercress, Pacific marsh purslane (marsh seedbox), water fern, and duckweeds. The Freshwater Marsh is a restored wetland that was previously filled and farmed for decades. Table 5.5. Bueng Bua Wood Boardwalk – this is a route around the freshwater Marsh which is the biggest one in Thailand. Ephydridae occur in a wide variety of habitats, from freshwater marshes to coastal marine habitats, highly saline and alkaline wetlands and thermal springs. Rivers are nothing but moving bodies of freshwater that originate in the mountains and come down to Earth from melting of ice and eventually flow into the ocean. Other functions include water storage and groundwater recharge, and a variety of other functions. Other studies on the North Slope of Alaska showed that experimental oiling elicits vigorous but short-term numerical responses by heterotrophic microbes. (And How to Keep Them Away), Do Deer Eat Peonies? Migratory bird use of the marshes also declined following drainage (UNEP, 2001). Thus, relatively low NO3− in the Pamunkey River (Neubauer et al., 2005a) may explain the higher importance of DNRA in that system. With active management, it was not surprising that overall plant species richness developed quickly. In agricultural landscapes, restoring wetland functions such as denitrification and P sorption can help offset nutrient loadings from intensively cultivated agricultural lands that encompass the region. For example, Scarborough and Flanagan (1973) found that microfungal propagules were 17 times more abundant in an oiled soil than in a reference soil at Prudhoe Bay, while yeasts were 20 times as abundant. Freshwater marshes are nonforested, nontidal wetlands dominated by grasses, sedges, and other freshwater emergent plants. In two study sites in black spruce (Picea Mariana) boreal forest, the treatment of vegetation with crude oil caused a rapid defoliation of the ground vegetation to 21–37% of the prespray plant cover after 1 month. They can occur in low depressional areas in the Gulf Coast region, in shallow water along lakes, rivers, or streams, or can exist as abandoned oxbows. Reestablishing vegetation involved natural colonization and active management by introducing seeds and planting native wetland vegetation (Hopple and Craft, 2013). Find the perfect freshwater marsh stock photo. Although the biology of shore flies has received considerable attention by entomologists and ecologists, the immature of most species remain unknown, mainly of neotropical species. A true environmentalist by heart ❤️. Also avoid sites that receive runoff containing large amounts of nutrients (N, P), excess sediment, and deicing salts that are known to promote invasion (Zedler and Kercher, 2004; Miklovic and Galatowitsch, 2005). Learn more about your Water Source: Where does the after coming out of your facets come from? Most of the rivers may run during spring and summer as cold temperatures freezes them. In the desert landscape, high salinity and sulfides following reflooding made it difficult to reestablish marsh vegetation (Richardson et al., 2005). Maintenance of the site will require continual vigilance to identify and remove invaders before they become established. In some situations, activities to control herbivore populations such as muskrat and nutria and waterfowl such as geese may be needed. Freshwater Biome Location. Saltwater marshes are found in very specific locations in mid to high latitudes with areas of protected ocean coast lines. Scaling these measurements across space and time requires considering the duration that a particular location in a tidal freshwater wetland is sufficiently reduced (i.e., has a low-enough redox potential) to support denitrification, which itself is a function of soil characteristics and marsh topography (Elsey-Quirk et al., 2013; Ensign et al., 2008, 2013; Von Korff et al., 2014). Fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) were low and were attributed to the relatively short hydroperiod (Richards and Craft, 2014). (a) Undrained Al-Hawizeh reference marsh; (b) drained central marsh; and (c) reflooded Abu-Zaraeg marsh in Iraq. Lichens and bryophytes were notably susceptible to the experimental oiling of tundra and boreal forest vegetation. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs, and then sometimes called carrs. Location: Orange County, Southern California, California, United States, North America; Latitude: 33.6561° or 33° 39' 22.1" north; Longitude: -117.8537° or 117° 51' 13.2" west; Elevation: 7 feet (2 metres) GeoNames ID: 5392141; In the Area Localities. In contrast, N removal by tidal freshwater marshes in larger systems such as the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, USA, is less efficient, with only ∼2%–5% of the N sequestered or denitrified (Academy, 1998; Merrill, 1999; Elsey-Quirk et al., 2013). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. J. Patrick Megonigal, Scott C. Neubauer, in Coastal Wetlands, 2019. When trees are cut down, there is nothing to anchor the soil to the ground. Animals in the lakes include plankton, crayfish, snails, worms, frogs, turtles, insects, and fishes. Animals that are found in or around the river include fishes, crabs, snakes, beavers, crocodiles, snails, insects and otters. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Odum, 1988; Pringle et al., 1993; Barendregt, 2005, Species commonly planted in restoration projects. They range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Water is a much needed good that we all depend upon, whether human, plant, or animal. (And Ways to Dispose of), Are Keys Recyclable? Hussain et al. There are large, natural areas in Florida known as wetlands, which includes marshes and swamps too. However, dispersant toxicity is typically less than the toxicity of dispersed oil, by whatever tests. Merv Fingas, in Oil Spill Science and Technology, 2011. Common species include a number of grasses, sedges, and rushes, many of which also are found in inland freshwater marshes (Table 8.3). Key Characteristics to Ensure Success, Avoid sites with soil disturbance (cleared land) or stressors (nutrients, road salt), Avoid sites with uncontrolled stressors such as runoff containing nutrients, sediment, and road salt, Reintroduce disturbance as appropriate (wet grasslands), Configure the site to create concentric rings of vegetation surrounding a central core of open water, Gentle slope between open water/wetland and upland, Rip and chisel plow surface/subsurface soil to reduce compaction (excavated sites), Return stockpiled topsoil containing seedbank and soil organic matter or amend with organic matter, Seeds and plants selected for appropriate geographic region, inundation regime, salinity (if applicable), Protect young transplants from herbivores (e.g., waterfowl). Bad video from 2018. Of course, one cannot forget fishing that is so attractive. As mentioned earlier, the Freshwater Biome is a great place for plants and animals alike to call home, and many do. Kitwe Zambia. Changes in soil C, N, and P, though, were not evident after 10 years, perhaps due to the short hydroperiod characterized by summer drawdown and use of prescribed fire to maintain prairie vegetation. Deforestation directly affects biodiversity and leads to a decrease in plant and animal life. This video is unavailable. A spring, lake or snowmelt begins the formation of a river or a stream and ends at an ocean or other body of water. Vegetative growth that originated from surviving meristematic tissues was the most important mechanism of progressive, postoiling regeneration of plants. Ensure that the site is devoid of propagules of these species and make sure that any added amendments such as SOM do not contain them. (And 6 Clever Ways to Reuse Old Keys), Can You Recycle Shampoo Bottles? They are also found in North America, particularly in Florida, as well as the Amazon River, It takes just one foot of water to make up a Freshwater Biome. Freshwater marsh is used in its broadest sense here and includes low, poorly … Mud everywhere, sometimes deep enough to consume a horse, cow, Yugo, or mother-in-law. Freshwater marshes are restored in the US through federal programs, especially the Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs (Fennessy and Craft, 2011; Marton et al., 2014b). Tidal freshwater marshes differ from salt and brackish water marshes in that they are inundated with freshwater only. Locations Freshwater Marsh are commonly found in the Gulf Coast region specifically in Florida. Within the water proper were rushes, bulrushes, sedges, and cattails.